Long before now, it is an established fact that the evolution of one of the deadliest diseases- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a progression of another deadly virus known as human Immune Virus abbreviated as HIV. It is disheartening to know that several lives have been lost to this dreadful virus and more individuals are still suffering under their terror since the pharmaceutical and medical scientists are yet to propound a cure. For a long time before the advent of an antiretroviral drug to manage and increase the lifespan of infected individuals, several trials were made to mitigate the activity of the viruses but were to no avail. Until the first HIV drug therapy was carried out using nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The therapy was later approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration in 1987. Here is a viable and potent antiviral vaccine used to treat and prevent the spreading of HIV and hepatitis B in the infected host. The drug therapy vaccine is known as Epivir. With a trade name Lamivudine. This drug helps suppress the action of HIV virus on host cells thereby prolonging or improving the health condition of the infected host. Although the mission of the notorious virus is to lead to the death of the host, it is delighting and comforting to know that the HIV virus can be managed and prevented as a result of the discovery of antiviral drugs such as Epivir. “Kudos to the pharmaceutical industries”. It is also crucial to note that Epivir is not a vaccine that cures HIV nor hepatitis B rather, it manages and reduces the expansion of the deadly viruses. Hepatitis B is also a known virus that can be managed and prevented using Epivir. Treating both HIV and hepatitis B viruses will require the use of Epivir-HBV vaccine.
Structure, Composition, and Properties of Epivir
Epivir is represented in the world of science with a chemical name called Lamivudine and it is characterized by a molecular formula C8H11N3O3S. The body structure of the antiviral agent consists of basic elements such as carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen and Sulphur conjoined together by series of chemical bonds. The molecular weight of Lamivudine is measured at 229.254g/mol with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor counts ratio 2:4. Its physical properties are recorded as crystals from boiling ethanol, melting point 160-162oC and its water solubility is valued at 70mg/ml. The drug was created in August 2005 and was later modified to October 2016. It is a fabricated nucleoside analog to combat HIV and hepatitis B.
How It Works
Epivir is converted into its active metabolites by an action known as phosphorylation. The active metabolites are lamivudine monophosphate and lamivudine triphosphate. The L-TP metabolite terminate DNA chain of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Possible Side effects of the usage of the antiviral drug
The usage of this antiviral drugs generate some adverse effects that are not palatable. The known side effects are a sore throat, nose blockage, sneezing, abnormal liver function tests and diarrhea. It is important to visit a physician when these side effects are noticed for proper advice on the usage of the vaccine.
Warning and Precautions
It is crucial to note that the usage of Epivir should be stopped if infected individuals show allergic reactions. Some individuals may experience tiredness, improper breathing, stomach disorder and nausea feeling among other adverse effects. Endeavor to get help from a physician and follow the appropriately prescribed dose usage of the drug.
Dosage Prescribed for the Use of Epivir
Intake of 100mg of Epivir-HBV once daily is recommended to treat adult patients with both hepatitis B and HIV. For children between the age of 2 to 17 years. 3mg per kg once daily up to a maximum daily dosage of 100mg is recommended. If the patient is unable to take in tablet, it can be made into a solution. Please note that the drug can be taking with or without food. The oral solution should be engaged when dosage prescribed is less than 100mg.